Amaknak Bridge

View of excavation dig
The site for the construction of the Amaknak Bridge, along the shoreline of Amaknak Island, Unalaska, was occupied between 3,500 and 2,500 years ago by the Unangan, the people of the eastern Aleutian Islands. In 1977, the Amaknak Bridge Site was determined eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Excavations at the Amaknak Bridge Site in 2003 and 2006 produced around 40,000 artifacts, placing it among the largest collections in the Aleutian region.
The Section 106 process began on this site in 1998, when the Amaknak Bridge’s original placement to avoid the Unangan site was deemed unsafe and the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (DOT&PF) planned for the construction of a new bridge that adversely affected the site. The DOT&PF considered alternative placements for the new bridge, but it was determined that if it had been rerouted closer to the water, there would have been negative environmental impacts, or the site of a National Historic Landmark would have been affected. 
Due to the adverse effect of this project, in 2002, it was agreed that 20% of the site would be excavated as mitigation and a Memorandum of Agreement was drafted and signed by the  FHWA and SHPO, DOT&PF, Ounalashka Corporation, Qawalangin Tribe, Historical Commission, and Museum of Aleutians. The first excavation occurred in 2003, followed by a salvage excavation in 2006 that concluded in 2007. The bridge was completed in 2008 to mixed reactions from the public. Community members understood why a new bridge needed to be constructed, but were upset about the loss of an important cultural and archaeological site and felt that the community was kept out of the consultation process.
So What?
The Amaknak Bridge Site is an example of how the Section 106 process can be applied accordingly and be successful in its steps, while still resulting in unfavorable results. A few community members of Unalaska felt unheard in the process. This case also highlights the difficulty of bringing together THPO and other tribal leaders as not all tribes have the same standing according to the federal government.