At the end of the Section 106 process, the final step is for the agency and consulting parties to reach a resolution. Two formal, and legally binding decisions can be in the form of a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) or a Programmatic Agreement (PA). An MOA is a document stating “the agreed upon resolution for a specific undertaking with a defined beginning and conclusion, where adverse effects are understood. A PA is mainly used for undertakings where the adverse effects cannot be determined in advance, for federal agency programs, routine management by an agency, or to mold the Section 106 process to better fit with decision-making. Other decisions can include a substitution of NEPA’s review process and consultation protocol agreements.